In order to achieve the demand for a steel with higher strength while retaining its formability. Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) were developed during mid-1990’s. Early efforts to obtain lighter weight and enhanced crash performance in vehicles were aimed at the development of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel but AHSS has become the new generation of steel revolutionizing the automotive industry.
There are two generations of AHSS based upon the microstructure of the steels. The first generation of AHSS are ferrite-based steels: dual-phase (DP) steel, martensitic steel (MS), complex-phase (CP) steel and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel. The second generation of AHSS was developed based upon an austenitic microstructure: Twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel, lightweight steel with induced plasticity (L-IP) and shear band formation-induced plasticity (SIP) steel. Although the strength level for the 1st generation was far beyond that of the conventional HSS, its limited formability remained a problem.
The design of the 3rd generation of AHSS is intended to produce steels with a better combination of strength and ductility than the 1st generation of AHSS and at a lower cost than the 2nd generation of AHSS. 1
Benefits of advanced high strength steel:
· AHSS is strong, light, and produced with a reduced life cycle impact, as a result it has a low environmental impact compared to other structural automotive materials.
· AHSS its strong and cost effective over aluminum.
· Weight reduction in a car with AHSS is equal to 360 Lbs. Saving 6.5% in fuel economy. It is an extra 611 miles every year.
The future of high strength steel is favorable not only in automotive industry. The report states that besides the automotive industry, which is the largest end-user segment, shipbuilding and the aircraft industry were the next largest consumers of lightweight materials.
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1 ADVANCED HIGH STRENGTH STEEL THROUGH PARAEQUILIBRIUM CARBON PARTITIONING AND AUSTENITE STABILIZATION